EXTINGUISHING WILDFIRE BY IMPULSE STORM TECHNOLOGY.
The present document is a summary of results of our own detailed investigation of forest fire in:
1. The region of Selangor, Malaysia, 1997.
2. The region of Altai, Russia, 1995-2005.
3. The region of the Crimean peninsula, Ukraine, 2001-2004.
It is also based on the research of the level of influence of different natural materials on environment and of fire extinguishing capability of these materials.
1. METHOD OF IMPULSE EXTINGUISHING
For a forest fire flame burning (homogeneous) and smoldering (heterogeneous burning) are typical. Flame burning determines the intensity and speed of fire spreading, while smoldering is a slow and steady process mostly developing when secondary burning centers emerge. Therefore, the primary task when localizing (stopping) forest fire is termination of flame burning. The most spread methods of active extinguishing of flame burning are: cooling with water or other cooling substances and knocking down the flame for its separation from the layer of combustible materials. Liquidation of smoldering centers is performed by pouring them with water or covering with ground.
The most effective fire extinguishing substance both for flame and flameless burning is water, which is often in deficiency or absent at all. In case of aviation method of applying water for extinguishing forest all positive qualities of water are brought to naught due to considerable difficulties of exact delivery of water to the fire center, high cost of aviation fuel (according to year 2005 prices), small number of special planes and helicopters and their high cost. In this case, in the absence of technical means most often lashing of flame by anything available is used (by means of tree branches, young trees etc.) or raking of combustible materials by hand-held tillers to the burnt area, or both are combined. These methods are rather labor-consuming and nonproductive, or very expensive and ineffective.
In view of the aforesaid and taking into account water deficiency virtually in all countries during drought, what was observed within the period from 2002 to 2005 and affected the extinguishing of forest fires, the most effective technological method of extinguishing forest fires is impulse method of extinguishing forest fires using special powder.
It should be especially noted that in case of necessity of obligatory and absolute protection of military, particularly important civil and strategic objects from forest fire invasion, the method of impulse powder extinguishing is the only guaranteed method of extinguishing.
In principle impulse extinguishing is divided into two stages:
The first operation: Localization of spreading of forest fire edge in the decisive direction by means of an impulse device for fire extinguishing powder supply. In this case, two effects are achieved: the first, because of impulse powder supply the flame is knocked down; the second – the presence on the processed area of fire extinguishing powder prevents renewal of flame burning.
The second operation: Investigation of the area gone through fire and extinguished by means of an impulse device for revealing remaining burning centers and their final extinguishing by using hand-held impulse fire extinguishers, covering with ground using hand-held tillers or pouring with water (if available) by means of backpack fire extinguishers.
When using these two operations with multiple and guaranteed positive effect practically the whole classical technology of extinguishing forest fires is realized.
2. SPECIAL POWDER FOR IMPULSE METHOD OF EXTINGUISHING
In my opinion, when extinguishing forest fires one should refuse of using standard fire prevention powders first of all because of high level of their negative influence on environment (especially in case of high concentrations and quantity), expensiveness and some other properties. In the impulse method of extinguishing forest fires a special powder is used based on the mineral magnesite (MgCO3). Due to the fact that magnesite is the only natural mineral and it is not a product of chemical synthesis, it is an absolutely ecologically pure product and it cannot cause any harm to environment and man’s health. Moreover, according to the conclusion of scientists of the Russian agricultural academy of sciences in the city of Perm, magnesite can be applied as a fertilizer and meliorant. Magnesium is one of the seven main elements, which are most necessary for plants. Its physiological role is already determined by the fact that it is part of chlorophyll.
The scientists have drawn a conclusion: the use of magnesite as a fertilizer increases the crop capacity of potatoes, tomatoes and cucumbers. The same magnesium-containing powder has proven itself a perfect meliorant. By neutralizing acidity of soil, it increased the crop capacity of barley, cabbage, beet, vetch, and clover.
The Introduction to TLVs (Threshold Limit Values) in the USA national labour contract for chemical industry workers includes the following statement: “Magnesium carbonate, also known as magnesite or gymnasts’ chalk, is not toxic in so far as it is not classed as toxic or harmful according to the conventional classification”.
Magnesite is classed as a toxicologically inert substance.
The presence of considerable natural reserves of magnesite on different continents (especially in Brazil and Russia), own inexpensive technologies for obtaining fine powder, virtually unlimited shelf life allow bringing to minimum the powder cost and effect safe production of unlimited amount.
The availability in my company of its own highly qualified specialists, technical means for impulse spraying, required proving grounds with a possibility of imitating forest fire, and the required amount of special powder allow, if case of necessity, conducting all necessary tests of the new method.
The ownership of all rights for the technology of spraying and producing special powder allow avoiding expensive procedures of export and import and organizing full production immediately in the country of use applying station base, transport caterpillar and wheel based means produced in this country.